Carole Goldberg has taught Civil Procedure, Federal Indian Law, Tribal Legal Systems, the Tribal Legal Development Clinic, and the Tribal Appellate Court Clinic. The two clinics have rendered legal services to Indian tribes and Indian judicial systems. In 2006, she served as the Oneida Indian Nation Visiting Professor at Harvard Law School, and in 2007 she was appointed a Justice of the Hualapai Court of Appeals. In 2010, President Barack Obama appointed her to the Indian Law and Order Commission, which investigated issues of safety and justice in tribal communities, and in 2013 issued a Final Report recommending ways to improve Indian country criminal justice. Also in 2013, the Indian Law Section of the Federal Bar Association conferred upon her its prestigious Lawrence F. Baca Lifetime Achievement Award.
Following law school, Professor Goldberg clerked for Judge Robert F. Peckham, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. She has twice served as Associate Dean for the School of Law, from 1984 to 1989 and from 1991 to 1992. She has also served as Chair of the Academic Senate in 1993-1994. From 2011 to 2016, she served as Vice Chancellor, Academic Personnel, for the UCLA campus.
Goldberg's recent books include Defying the Odds: The Tule River Tribe's Struggle for Sovereignty in Three Centuries (Yale University Press 2010, co-authored with anthropologist Gelya Frank) and Indian Law Stories (Foundation Press 2011, co-edited with Kevin Washburn and Philip Frickey). Professor Goldberg has written widely on the subject of federal Indian law and tribal law, and is co-editor and co-author of Cohen's Handbook of Federal Indian Law (1982, 2005, 2012 editions), as well as co-author of a casebook, American Indian Law: Native Nations and the Federal System (7th ed., 2015).